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Rocks and Minerals



1) Rock

A solid mixture of minerals and other materials

2) Igneous

A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface

3) Ignis

Root word meaning from fire

4) Intrusive

An igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface – Slow cooling, coarse, large crystals will form

5) Extrusive

An igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth’s surface – fast cooling, fine, small or no crystals will form

6) Sedimentary

A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animal are pressed and cemented together.  This requires four processes: erosion, weathering, deposition, compacting and cementing.  Forms on Earth’s surface.

7) Sediments

Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or organisms

8) Clastic rock

Sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure.

9) Organic rock

Sedimentary rock that forms from the remains of organisms deposited in thick layers.

10) Chemical rock

A type of sedimentary rock that forms when minerals are dissolved in a solution crystallize chemical sedimentary rocks forms.

11) Conglomerate

A sedimentary rock that has large rounded fragments.  More than 1/3 of the rock is made of large pieces.

12) Metamorphic

A type of rock that forms from and existing rock that is changed by great heat , great pressure and chemical reactions

13) Meta

Means change in Greek

14) Morph

Means forms

15) Weathering

The process when wind and water cause rocks to break into sediments

16) Erosion

The process when wind or water move the sediments

17) Deposition

The process when the sediments are put in a new location

18) Compaction

The process where sediments are pressed together by pressure.

19) Cementation

The process where sediments are glues together with clay, sand or mud into a sedimentary rock

20) Composition

The minerals that are inside a rock

21) Texture

The look and feel of a rock’s surface