Aphelion

 

When the Earth is farthest to the Sun in its orbit  (away)

 

 

 

 

 

Eclipse

 

  • When the Earth and moon revolve around the sun they sometimes block out the sunlight and cast a shadow on the other body.
  • The shadow causes an eclipse
  • The two types, depend on which body is blocked (in shadow)

 

 

Solar Eclipse

 

When the moon blocks the sunlight from the earth (Earth is in the moon’s shadow)

 

 

 

Lunar Eclipse

 

When the Earth blocks the sunlight from the moon (Moon is in Earth’s shadow)

 

 

Umbra

 

The small, dark inner shadow

This is where a Total Eclipse will take place.

 

 

Penumbra

 

The larger, lighter outer shadow

This is where a Partial Eclipse will take place.

 

 

Total Eclipse

 

The area of Earth that is in the Umbra of the moon’s shadow will experience a total Eclipse – total darkness

 

 

 

Partial Eclipse

 

 

The area of Earth that is in the Penumbra of the moon’s shadow will experience a partial Eclipse –

semi- darkness

 

 

Tides

 

 

  • Tides are the rise and fall of the oceans on the earth
  • They are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon on the Earth
  • As the Earth rotates (every 24 hours) the side of the Earth that faces the moon bulges.  This causes a High tide on both the side of Earth that faces the moon and on the side of Earth that faces away from the moon
  • Low tides occur on both sides that do not bulge
  • At any given shore on Earth there are always 2 high tides and 2 low tides every 24 hours.

 

 

 

 

Neap Tides

 

 

Weakest High and Highest Low tides-During the 1st quarter and last quarter the Sun and moon are at right angles, so the affect of their gravity works against each other causing the lowest, high tides to occur.

 

 

Spring Tides

 

 

Strongest High tides – When the Earth, Sun and moon line up in their orbits the sun’s gravitational pull adds to the moon’s and the tides are much higher (during the Full and New Moon Phases)

 

 

 

Moon’s Temperature

 

 

The temperature on the moon varies greatly…

From 130°C during the day to 2180°C at night

 


**** Study the diagrams for Tides and Eclipses – be able to label them.