Big Bang Theory



The creation of our universe occurred approximately thirteen - fifteen billion years ago when it was very, very hot.   It began with the explosion of concentrated matter and energy.   An explosion occurred that created our Universe ( Earth and the other planets, Sun, Solar System).






Cosmic Address



Planet Earth

Solar System - Our Solar System has a star called the Sun in the center of it.

Milky Way Galaxy- contains billions of stars. Our sun is one of billions of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.

Virgo Supercluster- made of thousands of galaxies

Universe-contains thousands of superclusters








One complete spin on an objects axis is a rotation

The rotation of the Earth on its axis causes day and night

The period of rotation for Earth is about 24 hours = 1 day








Earth revolves in an elliptical orbit around the sun.  (One complete trip around the sun!)

The period of revolution for Earth is about 365.26 days = 1 year









Horizontal line that lies between the North and South Poles.  It divides the Northern Hemisphere from the Southern Hemisphere.









The axis is an imaginary line on which the Earth rotates (spins) in space.


**The length of day and night changes because Earth's axis is tilted It is not straight up and down, it is tilted at an angle of 23.5 °







The seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth's axis and the revolution of the Earth around the sun

The part of Earth having summer is not closer to the sun; it is tilted toward the sun.

When the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, it is experiencing summer, while the southern hemisphere will be tilted away and experiencing winter.





Winter and Summer Solstice



Summer Solstice:
o For us it is when the Northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun
o Beginning of summer
** longest day of the year;
o Sun is at the highest point in the sky
o June 20th or 21st

Winter Solstice:
o For us it is when the Northern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun
o Beginning of winter
** shortest day of the year;
o Sun is at the lowest point in the sky
o December 21st or 22nd






Vernal and Autumnal Equinox


neither the North Pole nor South Pole is tilted toward the sun.
***Equal length of day and night****

***Vernal Equinox:
     Beginning of spring
     March 20th or 21st

     ***Autumnal Equinox:
         Beginning of fall
         September 22nd or 23rd




Weather on the Moon?





  No water· No Atmosphere – Without atmosphere there can be no weather


Direction the Earth Rotates in …..





(from west to east)



*Planets that have seasons…..


Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Mars





*Planets that do not have seasons…


Why do we have a Leap Year every four years and when is it?






Mercury, Venus and Jupiter



  After 4 years the .26 of a day or (6 hrs) each year causes there to be an extra day in a year.  The extra day is added to the month of February, you will have 29 days that year (Leap Year)





Order of Planets



M ercury  

V enus

E arth

M ars

J upiter

S aturn

U ranus

N eptune  

P luto











Inner core of Earth made of the metals iron and nickel

This acts like a magnetic bar that stretches from pole to pole

This creates a force field that stretches into the space around the Earth

The solar winds blow this magnetic field around, often changing its shape









Charged particles called ions in the ionosphere crash into each other causing beautiful bands of light to form; these are called auroras


*Northern Lights




Aurora Borealis

The band of light in North pole -
     visible in the Northern Hemisphere


  *Southern Lights





Aurora Australis

The band of light in the South pole -
     Visible in the Southern Hemisphere








mountain ranges on the moon

Most of the craters are located here








Dark lowland plains – named after mare, the Latin word for seas because from Earth they looked like water







Long valleys on the moon

Hadley Rille is one of the longest Since there was no water on the moon, they must have formed from volcanic activity or moonquakes









When the moon is closest to Earth in its orbit (pretty close)









  When the moon is farthest to Earth in its orbit (away)

Moon rocks

Moon rocks – about 4.6 billion years old – same age as Earth.

Earth and Moon formed –same time

They are similar to the composition of Earth








The moon has many moonquakes. They may have caused there to be rilles (cracks) on the moon.