Vocabulary
Unit 2 - Sphere within a Sphere

 

Define all terms and prefixes on index cards:
1) equa   "equal" (in Greek)
2) equator The imaginary line that divides the Earth into two equal spheres (The northern and Southern Hemispheres)
3) hemi "Half" (in Greek)
4) hemisphere Half a sphere (either the northern and southern halves or the eastern and western halves)
5) litho "rock" (in Greek)
6) lithosphere The rocky or solid portion of Earth - It refers to the crust and the upper mantle (the aesthenosphere)
7) hydro "water" (in Greek)
8) hydrosphere Water sphere - All the water on Earth - This includes: lakes, rivers, streams, oceans, seas, groundwater, icebergs, glaciers, precipitation, etc.
9) atmo "vapor" or "gases" (in Greek)
10) atmosphere Gas sphere - The envelope of gases that surround the earth.  NOTE: It is not Air!!!
11) direct evidence When you can study material using your own five senses (smell, touch, site, hearing, and not usually tasting) - Scientists use direct evidence when they drill into the Earth and examine rock samples.  They can then make inferences about the upper layers of the Earth.
12) indirect evidence When you cannot study material using your own five senses (smell, touch, site, hearing, and not usually tasting) - Scientists use indirect evidence when they use a seismograph to bounce energy waves through the Earth.  By observing how these waves move they can then make inferences about the inside of the Earth that we cannot see.
13) Seismic waves

 shock waves produced by the energy of the earth (earthquakes)

There are two types: S-waves and P-waves

14) S-waves S waves stop completely in liquid
15) P-waves P waves do not move well through liquid
16) Composition Composition means what materials something is made of.
17) geology The study of the Earth. A Geologist is someone who studies the Earth.