Name:             ___________________________                                                      Date: ______

Study Guide for Test on Heat, Energy, Wind and Water cycle             Period: ___


1) What is Radiation?




Radiation is the transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves.

2) Make a chart of the Electromagnetic Spectrum including: Infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation, Gamma Rays, visible light, x-rays and radio waves from longest to shortest:



Longest                                                                   Shortest

Least energy                                                        Most energy


Radio     infra-red   visible   Ultraviolet       x-ray    Gamma

Waves   radiation       light     radiation                         rays

3) Which energy wave has the most energy?

Gamma Rays

4) Which energy wave has the least energy?

Radio Waves

5) Which energy wave can be felt as heat?

Infra-red radiation

6)Which energy wave can cause sunburn and eye damage?

Ultra Violet radiation

7) What is scattering?



The reflection of light in all directions from the dust and crystals in the clouds.  It causes the sky to appear blue.

8) What is the Greenhouse Effect?



The green house effect is the gasses that hold in the heat in our atmosphere that enables Earth to maintain the appropriate temperature for life to exist.  If the greenhouse gases get too much then Global Warming will occur

9) What is heat?



It is the transfer of energy from a hotter object to a colder one.

10) Define and compare Thermal Energy and Temperature – Give an example




Temperature is the average energy of motion in an object.

Thermal energy is the total energy of motion in an object.

An example is the teapot and teacup.  When they both are be the same temperature the teapot will have more thermal energy because it has more molecules.

11) What are two temperature scales and list the freezing point and boiling point in each:


The two temperature scales are Celsius and Fahrenheit.  The boiling points are 100º C and 212 ºF.  The freezing points are 0 ºC and 32 ºF.

12) An instrument that measures temperature is a/an:


A thermometer.

13) An instrument that measures wind speed is a/an:


An anemometer.

14) An instrument that measures wind direction is a/an:

A wind vane.

15) An instrument that measures air pressure is a/an:

A barometer.

16) Name three ways heat is transferred.  Give and example of each.










Radiation: The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. Example: the warmth that you feel on your face when you are at the beach.

Conduction: The transfer of energy when two objects are touching (from the hotter one to the colder one) Example: When your feet burn upon touching the sand.

Convection: The transfer of energy through a liquid (gases and liquids) – Example: Kites rise due to the convection currents in the troposphere.

17) How is energy transferred to Earth?


Radiation from the sun travels to Earth by electro-magnetic waves.

18) What is the main way the troposphere is heated?


It is mainly heated by convection.

19) What is wind?



Wind is the horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.

20) The increased cooling that wind can cause is called?  Why does it make you feel colder?

The increased cooling is called the wind-chill factor.  It makes you feel colder because it removes the oils and water from your skin and therefore removes body heat.


21) What are Global Convection Currents?



Temperature differences between the Equator and the Poles cause giant convection currents.

22) What are local winds?




Local winds are winds that blow over short distances that are caused by the uneven heating of the earth’s atmosphere.  They are sea breezes and land breezes.


23) Explain when a land breeze and sea breeze will occur and why – be specific – make sure you use air-pressure in your explanation.







Sea Breeze – happens during the day.  It happens during the day because the land heats up much quicker and the air over the land has less pressure than the air over the ocean.  So wind blows from the ocean toward the land (high to low pressure)

Land Breeze – happens during the night.  The land loses heat faster than the air above the water.  So the air above the water has lower pressure (because it is warmer) and the wind will blow from the Land toward the water (high to low pressure)

24) What is the Coriolis Effect?


The way the global winds curve due to the Earth’s rotation.

25) Name all the Global Wind Belts.  Know at which latitudes they occur and which direction they blow.  Be able to fill out the chart.




90 º

       Polar Easterlies

60 º

       Prevailing Westerlies

30 º      Horse Latitudes

       Trade Winds

 0 º        Doldrums

       Trace Winds

30 º     Horse Latitudes

     Prevailing Westerlies

60 º

       Polar Easterlies

90 º

26)  What are the two calm areas?

Doldrums and Horse Latitudes

27) What are Jet Streams? – How fast do they blow? Where are they located?


They are bands of high speed wind about 10km above the Earth (bottom of the stratosphere) blowing at about 200-400 km per hour.  They blow from west to east.





28) What is the water cycle? – Name all the processes involved:




The continuous movement of water among Earth’s atmosphere, to the land’s surface and back again.

The processes are: Evaporation, Condensation, and precipitation along with, perspiration, transpiration, surface runoff and groundwater.

29) The process where water vapor changes to a liquid is called:




30) The process where liquid water changes to a vapor is called:


31) The process where clouds become too saturated and water falls back to Earth is called:



32) The process where water is released through the pores of animals is called:


33) The process where water is released through the pores of plants is called:



34) Water that cannot soak into Earth’s pores and runs along the land is called:


Surface Runoff

35) Water that soaks into the land and is trapped below the surface is called:



36) The point at which condensation begins is called the:

Dew Point